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## 010-111 - ACSM certified Personal Trainer - Dump Information

Vendor | : | ACSM |

Exam Code | : | 010-111 |

Exam Name | : | ACSM certified Personal Trainer |

Questions and Answers | : | 208 Q & A |

Updated On | : | June 26, 2017 |

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# QUESTION: 196

Your client reports ankle edema. What would a certified Personal Trainer look for?

Pain

Atrophy

Swelling

Red coloration

# Answer: C

# QUESTION: 197

What is the role of High Density Lipoprotein in the blood?

Transports cholesterol

Increases anaerobic enzymes

Increases triglycerides

Decreases total cholesterol

# Answer: A

# QUESTION: 198

What is the definition of arteriosclerosis?

Death of cardiac tissue

Accumulation of plaque

Hardening of the arteries

Widening of the arteries

# Answer: C

# QUESTION: 199

What are three non-modifiable conditions that place someone at increased risk for the development of coronary artery disease?

Advanced age, gender, family history

Family history, obesity, diabetes mellitus

Gender, family history, dyslipidemia

Post-menopausal status, excessive alcohol consumption, advanced age

# Answer: A

# QUESTION: 200

What effect should a bronchodilator have on your asthmatic client?

Increase airway resistance

Decrease airway resistance

Decrease blood pressure

Increase blood pressure

# Answer: B

# QUESTION: 201

Which of the following blood lipids is influenced more by physical activity than by nutrition modification?

LDL

HDL

VLDL

Total cholesterol

# Answer: B

# QUESTION: 202

What are the acute affects of alcohol intake on exercise?

Increases blood pressure and impairs exercise capacity

Decreases metabolic rate and increases blood pressure

Promotes dehydration and increases risk of heart arrhythmias

Increases risk of heart arrhythmias and increases exercise capacity

# Answer: C

# QUESTION: 203

Which of the following practices are NOT recommended for persons with asthma who desire to participate in a strenuous aerobic exercise program?

Exercise in an environment with warm, moist air.

Self-administer prescribed medication as directed prior to or during the exercise session.

Use a short, intense warm-up.

Use a scarf or surgical mask in front of the mouth if exercising in cold weather.

# Answer: C

# QUESTION: 204

What are three non-modifiable conditions that place someone at increased risk for the development of coronary artery disease?

Gender, family history, dyslipidemia

Family history, obesity, diabetes mellitus

Advanced age, gender, family history

Post-menopausal status, excessive alcohol consumption, advanced age

# Answer: C

# QUESTION: 205

What is the leading cause of non-cardiovascular death in young athletes?

Contact Sports Injuries

Anemia

Hypothermia

Overheating

# Answer: D

# QUESTION: 206

A client who reports a decreased Rating of Perceived Exertion at a given treadmill running speed after taking albuterol, likely suffers from which of the following conditions?

Depression

Asthma

Bradycardia

Claudication

# Answer: B

# QUESTION: 207

What is the exercise response to acute cigarette smoking?

Respiration rate increases; blood pressure response to exercise decreases

Likelihood of coronary artery spasm increases; blood pressure response to decreases

Heart rate increases; likelihood of coronary artery spasm increases

Likelihood of coronary artery spasm decreases; blood pressure response to exercise increases

# Answer: C

# QUESTION: 208

Which environmental trigger is NOT associated with exercise-induced asthma?

dry air

warm air

dusty air

pollutants

# Answer: B

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Chapter1 - ITI 1100/section A winter 2011 DIGITAL equipment I...

Unformatted text preview: ITI 1100/area A wintry weather 2011 DIGITAL system I Lectures: Monday, eleven:30 – 13:00 room: STE G0103 Thursday, 13: 00 –14:30 room: STE G0103 TUTORIAL: Thursday, 17:30 - 19:00 MNT 203 LAB LAB 1 Thursday, 19:00 - 22:00 CBY B302 LAB 2 Wednesday, 14:30 - 17:30 CBY B302 Professor : Dr A. Karmouch, office CBY A508 Mid-term examination date: Saturday March 5, 2011 (10:00-11:30) "bread 010-111board" Gervais Electronique 716 Ave Industrial cell: 738-3101 http://www.google.ca/search?hl=en&source=hp &q=bread 010-111board+graphic&meta=&aq=f&oq= 10% bargain for college students path web page: http://www.web page.uottawa.ca/~karmouch/educating/ Password: “elg1100b” route define Digital Design 1. Binary methods. Digital methods. Binary Numbers. quantity Base Conversions. Octal and Hexadecimal Numbers. enhances. Signed Binary Numbers. Binary Codes. Binary Storage and Registers. Binary arithmetic 2. Boolean Algebra and logic Gates. simple Definitions. fundamental Theorems and houses of Boolean Algebra. Boolean functions. Canonical and normal forms. other logic Operations. Digital logic Gates. direction define Digital Design [2] 3. Gate level Minimization The Map formulation. four Variable Map. manufactured from Sums Simplification. Don’t Care conditions. NAND and NOR, Implementation. different Two degree Implementations. exclusive OR function. four. Combinational good judgment Combinational Circuits. analysis procedure. Design method. Binary Adder Subtractor. Magnitude Comparator. Decoders. Encoders. Multiplexers. route define Digital Design [3] 5. Synchronous Sequential good judgment. Sequential Circuits. Latches. Flip Flops. evaluation of Clocked Sequential Circuits. Design system. 6. Registers advert Counters. Registers. Shift Registers. Ripple Counters. Synchronous Counters. other Counters. Textbook purchasable on the university of Ottawa book place. must buy! book Title: Digital Design Authors: M Morris Mano & Michael D. Ciletti version: Fourth edition ISBN: 0-13-198924-three writer: Pearson-Prentice hall route format 7.5 Hours of scheduled guideline per week - 3 hours of Lecture - 1.5 hour of group Discussions. (beginning date: to be introduced in the type) - 3 hours of Laboratory (starting date: to be introduced in the classification) Laboratory every pupil will have a laboratory session per week. There are six experiments to be performed, each requiring a bunch coaching and completion file. The beginning date for Labs is the week of Feb. 1, 2011, then every week Laboratory organizations will consist of two college students handiest. students are required to reside within the identical group and with the identical TA for the whole semester. Laboratory every group performing the test is required to record their information on paper and this should still be seen and signed by using the TA. The records should be connected to the submitted document. One lab file is anticipated from every community after each lab. The lab document should be organized based on the guidelines distinct in the lab guide. Grading Scheme Assignments 10% Laboratories 15% Mid time period exam 25% remaining exam 50% cheating and plagiarism •cheating is any act that offers you unfair talents on the price of yet another classmate. •Examples: –copying on assessments, homework •Plagiarism see the following URL: http://www.uottawa.ca/plagiarism.pdf •If we become aware of you are concerned in cheating or plagiarism you might be turned over to the school, for investigation and sanctions •G R mobile telephones ‘OFF’ all through category No facet talking all over class Write your questions and ask them once I invite you to accomplish that Chapter 1 BINARY programs “Digital Age” The crucial tool of up to date suggestions methods All computer systems have the equal fundamental accessories. internal the computing device a glance inside a laptop Block Diagram of a Digital computing device Arithmetic Operations What happens interior the CPU in one computing device cycle executing the operation 7 + 5 Digital programs Early computer systems had been designed to operate numeric computations They used discrete points of tips named digits (finite sets) DIGITAL systems: manipulate discrete elements of counsel such because the 10 decimal digits or the 26 letters of the alphabet we live in the “Digital Age”! Binary gadget and good judgment Circuits •What sort of information do computers work with? – Deep down internal, it’s all 1s and 0s •What can you do with 1s and 0s? – Boolean algebra operations – These operations map at once to hardware circuits (good judgment circuits) different Numbering techniques •Decimal (Arabic): (0,1,2,3,four,5,6,7,8,9): example: (452968) •Octal: (0,1,2,3,four,5,6,7): example (4073) •Hexadecimal(0,1,2,three,four,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F) instance: (2BF3) •Binary: (0,1): illustration: 1001110001011 10 8 16 Base in Numbering systems The decimal numbering system uses base 10. The values of the positions are calculated via taking 10 to some energy. 1 one hundred 1 102 6 10 2 1 6 a hundred and one 2 100 . . three 1/10 three 10-1 7 1/a hundred 7 10-2 5 Digits 1/a thousand Weights 5 10-three Digits Weights Base 10 for decimal numbers? It uses 10 digits: The digits 0 via 9. Base in Numbering techniques [2] The binary numbering system is called binary since it uses base 2. The values of the positions are calculated by means of taking 2 to a few power. Base 2 for binary numbers : It makes use of 2 digits. The digits 0 and 1. illustration of Numbers There are two feasible approaches of writing a host in a given device: 1- Positional Notation 2- Polynomial representation Positional Notation N = (an-1an-2 ... a1a0 . a-1a-2 ... a-m)r the place . = radix element r = radix or base n = number of integer digits to the left of the radix factor m = variety of fractional digits to the correct of the radix factor an-1 = most big digit (MSD) a-m = least enormous digit (LSD) Positional Notation The Decimal Numbering equipment The decimal numbering device is a positional quantity equipment. example: (4 6 2 1)10 (1000 one hundred 10 1 ) 1 x 100 2 x one zero one 6 x 102 four x 103 Positional Notation Binary Numbering system The Binary Numbering equipment is additionally a positional numbering equipment. as an alternative of the use of ten digits, 0 - 9, the binary gadget makes use of best two digits, the 0 and the 1. illustration of a binary number & the values of the positions. 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 1 23 1 22 0 21 1 20 . 0 2-1 1 2-2 Binary digits, or bits Weights (in base 10) Polynomial Notation N = an-1 x rn-1 + an-2 x rn-2 + ... + a0 x r0 + a-1 x r-1 ... + a-m x r-m = n −1 ∑ ai r i i= − m example: Positional (N) Polynomial (N) N = (651.45)10 = 6 x 102 + 5 x a hundred and one + 1 x 100 + 4 x 10-1 + 5 x 10-2 crucial number programs There are three critical quantity programs • Binary quantity equipment • Octal number equipment • Hexadecimal quantity system Binary numbers Digits = 0, 1 Positional Polynomial (11010.11)2 = 1 x 24 + 1 x 23 + 0 x 22 + 1 x 21 + 0 x 20 + 1 x 2-1 + 1 x 2-2 –1 ok (kilo) = 210 = 1,024 –1M (mega) = 220 = 1,048,576 –1G (giga) = 230 = 1,073,741,824 changing Decimal to Binary N = (an-1an-2 ... a1a0 . a-1a-2 ... a-m)r Integer Fractional Radix aspect Integer half and Fractional half are converted otherwise changing the Integer half • maintain dividing by using 2 until the quotient is 0. compile the remainders in reverse order. • example: (162) . 10 162 / 2 81 / 2 40 / 2 20 / 2 10 / 2 5/2 2/2 1/2 = eighty one = forty = 20 = 10 =5 =2 =1 =0 rem 0 rem 1 rem 0 rem 0 rem 0 rem 1 rem 0 rem 1 • Then (162)10 = (10100010) 2 converting the Fraction half retain multiplying the fractional part with the aid of 2 except it becomes 0. assemble the integer elements (in ahead order). – youngsters this may additionally now not terminate! –example: (0.375) 10 0.375 x 2 = 0.750 0.750 x 2 = 1.500 0.500 x 2 = 1.000 So, (.375) 10 = (.011)2 And (162.375) 10 = (10100010.011)2 Why does this work? •This components will also be utilized to transform from decimal to any base •are attempting changing 162.375 from decimal to decimal. 162 / 10 = 16 rem 2 16 / 10 = 1 rem 6 1 / 10 = 0 rem 1 •each and every division “strips off” the rightmost digit (the remainder). The quotient represents the final digits in the quantity. Why does this work? [2] 0.375 x 10 = 3.750 0.750 x 10 = 7.500 0.500 x 10 = 5.000 • each and every multiplication “strips off” the leftmost digit (the integer half). The fraction represents the last digits. converting binary to decimal • to transform binary, or base 2, numbers to decimal we first acquire the polynomial illustration of the quantity, then sum the items. – example: (1101.01)2 1 23 1 22 0 21 1 20 . 0 2-1 1 2-2 Binary digits, or bits Weights (in base 10) (1 x 23) + (1 x 22) + (0 x 21) + (1 x 20) + (0 x 2-1) + (1 x 2-2) = eight + four + 0 + 1 + 0 + 0.25 The decimal cost is: (13.25)10 Octal quantity device –Digits = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Positional = Polynomial (127.4)8= 1 x eighty two + 2 x eighty one + 7 x eighty + four x 8-1 • Octal (base 8) digits range from 0 to 7. when you consider that 8 = 23, one octal digit is equivalent to 3 binary digits. changing Decimal to Octal Integer half: preserve dividing by means of eight except the quotient is 0. bring together the remainders in reverse order. Fractional half: keep multiplying the fractional part by means of eight except it becomes 0. assemble the integer ingredients (in forward order). equal components as for the decimal to binary converting Octal to Decimal •to convert Octal, or base eight, numbers to decimal we first attain the polynomial representation of the number, then sum the products. instance (127.four)8 = 1 x eighty two + 2 x 81 + 7 x 80 + 4 x eight-1 = (87.5)10 converting Binary to Octal •to transform from binary to octal, make corporations of 3 bits, starting from the binary factor. Add 0s to the ends of the quantity if necessary. Then convert each neighborhood of bits to its corresponding octal digit. illustration (10110100.001011)2 = =(010 110 a hundred . (2 6 4 . 001 011 )2 1 three )eight changing Octal to Binary •to transform from octal to binary, exchange each and every Octal digit with its equivalent 3-bit binary sequence. •instance (261.35) eight = = (010 (2 110 6 001 1 . 011 . three one hundred and one)2 5 )8 Hexadecimal numbers -Digits = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, eight, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F Positional Polynomial - (B65F)sixteen = eleven x 163 + 6 x 162 + 5 x 161 + 15 x one hundred sixty • Hexadecimal (base sixteen) digits are 0, 1, 2, three, 4, 5, 6, 7, eight, 9, A, B, C, D, E, and F. given that 16 = 24, one hexa digit is reminiscent of four binary digits. –It’s frequently less difficult to work with a host like B5 instead of 10110101. converting Decimal to Hexadecimal Integer part: hold dividing by sixteen unless the quotient is 0. collect the remainders in reverse order. Fractional part: maintain multiplying the fractional part by means of sixteen unless it turns into 0. assemble the integer constituents (in forward order). identical system as for the decimal to binary conversion changing Hexadecimal to Decimal • to transform Hexadecimal, or base 16, numbers to decimal, first acquire the polynomial representation of the quantity, then sum the products. instance (B65F)sixteen = 11 x 163 + 6 x 162 + 5 x 161 + 15 x one hundred sixty = (forty six,687)10 converting Hexadecimal to Binary • to transform from hexadecimal to binary, substitute each hex digit with its equal 4bit binary sequence. • illustration 261.3516 = = (2 6 1 . 3 5 )sixteen (0010 0110 0001 . 0011 0101)2 converting Binary to Hexadecimal •to convert from binary to hex, make businesses of 4 bits, ranging from the binary element. Add 0s to the ends of the number if necessary. Then convert each community of bits to its corresponding hex digit. •example (10110100.001011)2 = = (1011 (B 0100. 0010 1100)2 four . 2 C)sixteen D e c im a l 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 three 1 four 1 5 B in a r y 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 O c ta l 0 1 2 three four 5 6 7 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 H e x 0 1 2 three 4 5 6 7 eight 9 A B C D E F ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS IN A BINARY equipment Binary Addition 0 +0 -sum 0 ___ 0 + 1 -1 1 +0 -1 1 +1 -10 ( sum of 0 and carryover of 1 ) Examples: 1001 +0110 1111 0001 +1001 1010 1100 + 0101 1 0001 carryover Binary Addition-Examples assess your work carry 11 1 10 1 101101 (forty five)10 +011101 Sum + 100 1 01 0 = seventy four (29)10 1 x 25 + 0 x 24 + 1 x 23 +1 x 22 + 0 x 21 + 1 x 20 = 32 + 0 + 8 + four + 1 = 45 Binary Addition- Examples Addition of three Binary Digits x 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 y CarryIn 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 Sum 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 CarryOut 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 Addition of giant Binary Numbers - illustration showing greater numbers: 1010 0011 1011 0001 + 0111 0100 0001 1001 1 0001 0111 1100 1010 Binary Subtraction difference ___ 0 - 0 -0 0 - 1 -11 ( Diff. of 1 and carryover of 1 ) 0 10100 101011 - 010101 0 0 10110 1 -0 -1 1 -1 -0 Binary Multiplication 0 x0 -Product 0 ___ A X B 0 x 1 -0 1 x0 -0 0 010000.010 0 001000.010 0000000000 0010000010 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0010000010 1000110.000100 1 x1 -1 Binary Division 0 . . = 1 0 1 . . 1 1 enhances in Numbering techniques • enhances are utilized in digital systems (computer systems) for simplifying the Subtraction operation and for logical manipulation • There are to type of enhances for every base ‘r’ system: 1- Radix complement Ex. base 10base 2 r’s complement 10’s complement 2’s complement 2- Diminished radix complement Ex. ( r-1) complement base 10 9’s complement Base 2 1’s complement Radix complement (r's complement) [N]r = rn - (N)r where n is the variety of digits in (N)r. instance •2's complement of (N)2 = (101001)2 [N]2 = 26 - (101001)2 = (a million)2 - (101001)2 = (010111)2 • 10's complement of (N)10 = (72092)10 [N]10 = (one hundred thousand)10 - (72092)10 = (27908)10. acquiring 2’s complement • may also be acquired without delay from the given number through 1-coping each and every little bit of the number starting at least massive bit and continuing ahead probably the most large bit except the first 1 has been copied. 2- After the primary 1 has been copied substitute each and every of the last 0s and 1s with the aid of 1s and 0s respectively (a) [1010100]2 = 27 - (1010100)2 = (a million)2 - (1010100)2 =(0101100)2 (b) [101001]2 = 26 - (101001)2 = (1000000)2 - (101001)2= (010111)2 (a) 2 ’s 1010100 01 0 1 1 0 0 (b) 10 1 0 0 1 010 111 Diminished radix complement (r-1’s complement) [N]r-1 = (rn -1)r - (N)r -9’s complement of [546700]9 = 999999 – 546700 = 453299 -1’s complement of [1011000] = (10000000 – 1)2 – (1011000)2 = (0100111)2 obtaining 1’s complement • 1 ’s complement can be obtained without delay from the given number by using replacing every of 0s and 1s by way of 1s and 0s of the quantity (i.e. complement every bit) [1011000] = (10000000 – 1)2 – (1011000)2 = (0100111)2 1011000 1 ’s complement 01 0 0 1 1 1 Subtraction with 2’s Complement • 2’s complement are used to convert subtraction to addition, which reduces hardware necessities (most effective adders are needed). A - B = A + (-B) (add 2’s complement of B to A) • 2’s Complement has the residences of the minus signal A + (-A) = 0 A + 2’sA = 0 - (- A) = A A - B = A + (-B) 2’s 2’sA = A A - B = A + 2’sB Subtraction with 2’s Complement [2] Examples: A= 1010100 B= 1000011 • 2’s complement A - B = A + (-B)= A+ [B] = (1010100) + (0111101) = (0010001) 1010100 + Discard conclusion elevate 0111101 1 0010001 Subtraction with 1’s Complement Examples: be aware: equal proprieties minus signal as 2’s complement. A= 1010100 B= 1000011 •1’s complement A - B = A+ [B]= (1010100) + (0111100) = (0010001) 1010100 + Add end lift 0111100 1 0010000 + 1 0010001 Subtraction with 10s/9’sComplements (72)10 - (32)10 = (40)10 10’s Complement [32]= 102 – (32)10 = (68)10 (seventy two)10 + (68)10 = 1 (40)10 9’s Complement [32]= (102 -1) – (32)10 = (sixty seven)10 (72)10 + (67)10 = (1 + 39)10 = (40)10 Signed Binary numbers • keep in mind that digital programs are made with contraptions that tackle precisely two states : 0 and 1. •The most effective states are “1” and “0”. There isn't any “-” state! because of hardware obstacles computers symbolize negative numbers by using the leftmost bit for the signal bit. -- “0” shows a positive quantity, -- while a “1” suggests a bad quantity Signed Magnitude •The leftmost bit shows the signal of the number. The remaining bits give the magnitude of the quantity the usage of eight bits to signify binary quantity the value in the instance is: signal magnitude 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 -3 = 10000011 = 1/ (signal bit) 0000011 signal Magnitude illustration is good for having the potential for a human to study 010-111 and understand what quantity is represented Signed Complement (a) Signed Magnitude illustration 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 -three = 10000011 = 1/ (signal bit) 0000011 (b) Signed 1’s illustration 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 -3 = 10000011 = 1/ (signal bit) 1111100 (c) Signed 2’s representation 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 -three = 10000011 = 1/ (signal bit) 1111101 fixed-length Registers •All functional digital contraptions have fastened-length registers •This capability that numbers in a computer are represented by way of a hard and fast number of bits –The earliest microprocessors had been 4-bit gadgets –Intel 8080 and the 6502 (Apple II) chips had been 8bit –Intel 8088 (IBM notebook) and Motorola 68000 (Mac) are sixteen-bit gadgets –Pentium chips and PowerPC chips are 32-bit latitude of a bunch Overflow all the way through addition •a set-size register can handiest hold a number numbers For a 4-bit device, the latitude of high-quality integers is 0 - 15 For an 8-bit gadget the range of fine integers is 0 – 255 When adding wonderful integers, Overflow happens when the sum falls outside the latitude of the register Overflow in Signed enhances •when numbers are handled as signed complement, a “raise” of 1 from the addition of essentially the most tremendous bits doesn't point out an overflow, 3 00011 + (-three)+11101 = 00000, with a raise of “1” (2’complement) : We be aware of that addion operation in 2’s complement the conclusion-raise is discarded ! •For signed complement, overflow happens when: The addition of two advantageous numbers outcomes in a bad number OR The addition of two poor numbers outcomes in a favorable number Overflow Examples •In a 6-bit register with signed 2’s complement + 17 = 010001 + 16 = +010000 =100001 100001 = - (11111) = -(31)10 instead of + (33)10 •equal with a 7-bit register + 17 = 0 010001 + sixteen = +0 010000 = 0100001 0100001 = + 33 No Overflow Binary codes: BCD (1) • To symbolize guidance as strings of alphanumeric characters. • Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) – Used to represent the decimal digits 0 - 9. – four bits are used. – each bit place has a weight associated with it (weighted code). – Weights are: 8, four, 2, and 1 from MSB to LSB (known as 84-2-1 code). Binary codes: BCD (2) – BCD Codes: 0 three 6 9 0000 0011 0110 1001 1 0001 4 0100 7 0111 2 5 8 0010 0101 one thousand – Used to encode numbers for output to numerical displays –example: (9750)10 = (1001011101010000)BCD Binary codes: ASCII [2] • ASCII (American common Code for suggestions Interchange) (see desk 1.7 of textbook) – Most general character code. – instance: ASCII code representation of the be aware ‘Digital’ persona D i g i t a l Binary Code 1000100 1101001 1100111 1101001 1110100 1100001 1101100 Hexadecimal Code forty four 69 67 sixty nine seventy four 61 6C apply complications Solved in the category Examples: Signed complements 2’s signal-bit (9)10 +( 6)10 0 0 0 1001 0110 1111 (9)10 0 1001 - ( 6)10 1 0 1010 0011 (6)10 0 0110 - ( 9)10 1 0111 1 1101 Examples: Signed complements 1’s signal-bit (9)10 0 0 0 +( 6)10 1001 0110 1111 (9)10 0 - ( 6)10 1 0 1 1001 1001 0010 = (0010) + (0001) = (0011) (6)10 0 0110 - ( 9)10 1 0110 1 1 a hundred complications question (a) Convert le following binary quantity into (i) Octal, (ii) Decimal, (iii) hexadecimal 10101101.10110 (b) Convert A= 16.25 and B = eight.25 into binary, use 7 bits to represent the integer half and three bits to signify the fractional half, then operate right here operations I) ii) iii) vi) C= A + B D =A–B E= A x B F=A B note: Compute C and D (a) using non-signed binary numbers and devoid of complements (b) the use of signed 2’s complement (c) Convert le following number into (i)Decimal, (ii) Octal, (iii) binary (FD8.C2B)sixteen issues 10101101.10110 solutions: i) Octal one hundred and one (2 iii) Hexa (010 5 one zero one.101 100) 5 . 5 4)8 ( 1010 1101.1011 0000 )2 (A D . B 0)sixteen ii) Decimal (10101101.10110)2 = 1 x 27 + 0 x 26 + 1 x 25 +0 x 24 + 1 x 23 + 1 x 22 +0 x 21 + 1 x 20 + 1 x 2-1 + 0 x 2-2 1 x 2-3 + 1 x 2-four + 0 x 2-5 = (173.6875)10 complications Integer half • Conversion de (sixteen) . 10 sixteen / 2 eight/2 four/2 2/2 1/2 =8 =four =2 =1 =0 the rest 0 the rest 0 the rest 0 remainder 0 the rest 1 • Then (16)10 = (ten thousand) 2 complications Fractional part – converting: (0.25) 10 •then, (.25) 10 = (.01)2 0.25 x 2 = 0.50 0.50 x 2 = 1.00 and (16.25) 10 = (ten thousand.01)2 identical as for A B = 8.25: (8.25) 10 = (1000.01)2 representation the usage of 7 bits and 3 bits A= (16.25) 10 = (0010000.010)2 B= (eight.25) 10 = (0001000.010)2 issues A +B Non Signed Binary 0010000.010 0001000.010 0 011000.a hundred A 0010000.010 - B 0001000.010 0001000.000 complications Signed 2’ complement A 0 010000.010 +B 0 001000.010 0 011000.a hundred A 0 010000.010 + (-B) 1 110111.110 0 001000.000 issues A X B 0 010000.010 0 001000.010 0000000000 0010000010 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0010000010 1000110.000100 complications .B A. Dividend ten thousand.010 1000010 01000 0000 1000010 Divider a thousand .010 1.1.. Quotient Binary common sense • Binary good judgment offers with 1 - Variables that can tackle two discrete values Values can also be referred to as proper, False, yes, no, and so forth. 2 - Operations that anticipate LOGICAL which means Binary common sense is akin to Boolean algebra Boolean Algebra •primary arithmetic required for the description of digital circuits • used to describe the different interconnections of digital circuits • the variable used in the Boolean algebra are referred to as Boolean variables we will examine two-valued Boolean algebra and services with simplifications the usage of fundamental Boolean Identities Two-valued Boolean Algebra • It incorporates 1- Boolean Variables - precise by letters of the alphabet equivalent to A, B, C, x, y, z and so forth. - each and every variable can have two and most effective two distinct values: 1 and nil (genuine, False) - can also be a characteristic of every other Boolean variables (F=ABC) 2- Boolean Operations -There are three basic logical operations: AND, OR, and not primary Boolean Operations- AND operation • Represented through a dot or by way of the absence of an operator example: examine: x.y = or xy=z x AND y is equal to z Interpretation: Z = 1 if and handiest if x= 1 AND y= 1 otherwise z = 0 actuality desk: Don’t confuse this with binary multiplication operation x y xy 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 reality desk offers the price of z for all feasible values of x and y fundamental Boolean Operations- OR operation • Represented through a plus sign (+) example: read 010-111: x+y=z x OR y is equal to z Interpretation: z = 1 if x= 1 or if y= 1 or if each x =1 and y =1. z = 0 if x = 0 and y=1 reality desk: x Don’t confuse this with binary addition operation y x+y 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 reality desk offers the cost of z for all feasible values for x and y basic Boolean Operations- now not operation • Represented by using a chief or an overbar (also called complement) instance: study 010-111: x’ = z (or x = z) no longer x is equal to z Interpretation: z = “what x is not” x= 1 then z=0; x= 0 then z=1 truth table: x x’ 0 1 1 0 fact table gives the cost of z for all possible values for x Binary logic and Binary signals • For simplicity, we regularly still write digits instead: – 1 is right – 0 is fake • we can use this interpretation together with particular operations to design services and common sense circuits for doing arbitrary computations. logic Gates • good judgment gates are digital circuits that operate on one or more input signal to supply an output sign •fundamental operations can be carried out in hardware using a basic good judgment gate. –Symbols for each of the common sense gates are proven beneath. –These gates output the product, sum or complement of their inputs common sense Operation: illustration: good judgment gate: AND (product) of two inputs x.y, or xy OR (sum) of two inputs x+y no longer (complement) With one input x’ Gates with distinctive Inputs • AND and OR Gates may additionally have greater than 2 enter signals Binary indicators •computers use voltages to characterize suggestions. •Two voltage levels are used to characterize a binary cost “1” and “0” • Some digital methods as an example may define that: - Binary ‘0” is the same as 0 Volt - Binary “1” is the same as four Volt It’s effortless for us to translate these voltages into values 1 and 0. Volts four 1 0 0 Binary logic and Binary signals •It’s also feasible to believe of voltages as representing two logical values, real and false. These logical values are known as Boolean values Volts 4 proper False 0 common sense Gates - alerts example two input alerts 1 0 0 one output signal good judgment Gates - signals example 2 input alerts 1 1 1 1 output signal Timing Diagram –input and output alerts basic and different common sense gates •fundamental common sense gate •AND •OR •not These are called “primary common sense gates” as all other gates and digital Circuits can be made out of these gates. • different common sense gates •NAND •NOR •XOR •XNOR These are known as “normal good judgment gates” as any digital circuit can be designed via simply using these gates The NAND & NOR Gates • we are able to use a NAND and NOR gates to put in force all three of the fundamental operations (AND,OR,no longer). they are mentioned to be functionally finished both NAND and NOR gates are very useful as any design can be realized the use of either one. •it is easier to build digital circuits the use of all NAND or NOR gates than to mix AND,OR, and not gates. •NAND/NOR gates are typically sooner and cheaper to produce. The NAND Gate •The NAND gate is a mix of an AND gate followed by an inverter (now not gate). •we will use a NAND gate to implement all three of the simple operations (AND,OR,no longer). •one of these gate is declared to be functionally comprehensive. A B F= A.B = A+B A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 F 1 1 1 0 The XOR Gate (exclusive-OR) • here's a XOR gate. • XOR gates assert their output when precisely some of the inputs is asserted, hence the name. • The operator image for this operation is ⊕ 1 ⊕ 1 = 0 and 1 ⊕ 0 = 1. A B F= A⊕ B = AB + AB A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 F 0 1 1 0 The XNOR Gate • This services as an unique-NOR gate, or comfortably the complement of the XOR gate. • The image for this operation is 1 1 = 1 and 1 0 = 0. A B F A B F Z= F= A ⊕ B = (AB) + (A ⋅ B) = AB + A' B' 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 ...View Full document

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